A stūpa is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics that is used as a place of meditation. A related architectural term is a chaitya, which is a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa.
Stone gardens existed in Japan at least since the Heian period (794–1185). These early gardens were described in the first manual of Japanese gardens, Sakuteiki, written at the end of the 11th century by Tachibana no Toshitsuna (1028–1094).
|Stupa at Borobudur Java 8th Century||
The Borobudur monument combines the symbolic forms of the stupa, the temple mountain and the mandala.