South Africa

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India and South Africa / Reddy, ES. Occasional Papers Series No 1. UDW, 1991
India - The Communities that form the World's Largest Democracy

It is one of the two nation states which came into existence on.....

Independent oak unit consisting of book shelves with cupbaord and drawers

Digital, furniture unit

Indentured Indians. A Brief History(1860-1910)

White farmers needed labour on sugar farms.

Natal sugar farmer JAMES SAUNQERS, who had previously owned sugar plantations in MAURITIUS on which he employed Indian labour; strongly motivated for Indian labour to be imported into Natal.

Indentured Indians in the Sugar Field

The Indians were sent to work on the sugar cane fields, railways or to work as special servants, ayahs (Nannies) for the White children, waiters or cooks. The Indians lived in atrocious conditions , their wages were low and sometimes they were not paid.

Indentured Indians in Natal

a vivid description of the history of Indian South Africans and how they came as indentured labour to the British Colony of Natal between 1860 and 1911.

Indentured Indian Immigration to Natal, 1860- 1870 with special reference to the Hindu Caste System and its implications

While much i s w r i t t e n about the Indians from the time they came t o South
A f r i c a i n 1860 t o the present day, research leading t o the conditions i n
India p r i o r t o 1860 and the possible reasons as t o why they l e f t


In its summary for the month of November 1860, The Natal Mercury noted that the news was principally confined to one topic. During the month an important change has taken place in our social fabric. A new element has been introduced and transfused into our population.

Indentured Indian History - 1860

In Natal, the arrival of the Indentured Indian in 1860 marked the beginnings of an organised scheme whereby approximately 152,184 Indians arrived to seek gainful employment in a fledgling sugar industry.

Indentured Indian emigrants to Natal, 1860-1902 : a study based on ships' lists

This was a very ambitious undertaking—the analysis of 91 volumes of 384 ships* lists of 152,184 indentured Indians going to Natal between 1860 and, initially, 1911

Indentured Indian
Indenture Labourers on the Coffee plantation

Importing Indentured immigrants from India solved the problem of labour. ... In Natal planting and harvesting seasons overlap to a considerable ...

Indenture labourers arrive in boats in Port Natal

Approximately 152,184 indentured Indians arrived under the scheme of indenture ... The ports of Madras and Calcutta served as the points of embarkation. ...

Indenture Conditions (Indian Patriot, April 1909)

Indian Patriot

Indenture and Indianness in South Africa, 1860–1913

Beginning in the mid-19th century, about 1.3 million Indian contract labourers were exported to Mauritius, Jamaica, British Guiana, Trinidad, St Lucia, Granada and Natal to satisfy the demand for labour that was both cheap and docile (Meer 1980: 3).

Indaba, ... review & the year ahead : the Directors' Report
Indaba News Jul-Aug 1989
Indaba News Dec 1989 Jan 1990
Indaba News : Kwa-Zulu Natal
Indaba News - Sept/Oct 1989


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