Visit to Laduma Madela's kraal in March and April 1979
In Bafungile's house: Two healing methods combined, "inyamazane" and " chasing awya evat ghost or evil spirit" 1. "Inyamazane"= wild animals (remains) i.e. inhale smoke of small parts of burned animals, especially antelops, put in potsherd. This method is called "ukuhogela", i.e. to inhale, or "ukushunqisa", i.e. to expose to smoke. In order to inhale as much of the smoke as possible Madela keeps the smoke by holding his hands both sides of the potsherd. 2. Ziphelaphi chase away evil ghosts by holding the whistle and waving the white oxtail fastened at a stick.